IOT SECURITY FOR SMART GRID ENVIRONMENT: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS


(Received: 27-Jul.-2020, Revised: 10-Oct.-2020 , Accepted: 27-Oct.-2020)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the Internet's latest innovation today, where every physical object is situated or where measurement, as well as communication capacities, can be seamlessly synchronized to the Internet at various rates. The most important infrastructure, the smart grid, is called the extended version of the power grid with comprehensive Internet infrastructure. The smart grid will include billions of intelligent appliances: intelligent meters, actuators, vehicles and so on, despite a few correspondence infrastructures, whether public or private. Notwithstanding, security is viewed as one of the primary considerations hampering the large scope reception and arrangement of both the IoT vision and the smart grid. To date, the issues of IoT for the smart grid are rarely discussed empirically in any academic research. This study aims to examine security problems and challenges in the IoT smart grid system. Findings show various issues that we can categorize into three parts; component issues, system issues and network issues. As a result, this study proposes a mitigation plan for the problems highlighted by developing an IoT smart grid security component model.

[1] K. Kandasamy, S. Srinivas, K. Achuthan and V. P. Rangan, "IoT Cyber Risk: A Holistic Analysis of Cyber Risk Assessment Frameworks, Risk Vectors and Risk Ranking Process," EURASIP Journal on Information Security, vol. 2020, pp. 1-18, 2020.

[2] P. Sethi and S. R. Sarangi, "Internet of Things: Architectures, Protocols and Applications," Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2017, pp. 1-25, 2017.

[3] B. Champaty, S. K. Nayak, G. Thakur, B. Mohapatra, D. Tibarewala and K. Pal, "Development of Bluetooth, Xbee and Wi-Fi-based Wireless Control Systems for Controlling Electric-Powered Robotic Vehicle Wheelchair Prototype," Robotic Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, IGI Global, pp. 1048-1079, 2020.

[4] V. Hassija, V. Chamola, V. Saxena, D. Jain, P. Goyal and B. Sikdar, "A Survey on IoT Security: Application Areas, Security Threats and Solution Architectures," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 82721-82743, 2019.

[5] S. K. Rathor and D. Saxena, "Energy Management System for Smart Grid: An Overview and Key Issues," International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 4067-4109, 2020.

[6] X. Fang, S. Misra, G. Xue and D. Yang, "Smart Grid—The New and Improved Power Grid: A Survey," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 944-980, 2011.

[7] S. K. Goudos, P. Sarigiannidis, P. I. Dallas and S. Kyriazakos, "Communication Protocols for the IoT- based Smart Grid," IoT for Smart Grids, pp. 55-83, Springer, 2019.

[8] F. Dalipi and S. Y. Yayilgan, "Security and Privacy Considerations for IoT Application on Smart Grids: Survey and Research Challenges," Proc. of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud Workshops (FiCloudW), pp. 63-68, Vienna, Austria, 2016.

[9] B. Jelacic, I. Lendak, S. Stoja, M. Stanojevic and D. Rosic, "Security Risk Assessment-based Cloud Migration Methodology for Smart Grid OT Services," Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 113-134, 2020.

[10] M. Z. Gunduz and R. Das, "Cyber-security on the Smart Grid: Threats and Potential Solutions," Computer Networks, vol. 169, p. 107094, 2020.

[11] L. Tightiz and H. Yang, "A Comprehensive Review on IoT Protocols’ Features in Smart Grid Communication," Energies, vol. 13, no. 11, p. 2762, 2020.

[12] A. Ghasempour, "Internet of Things in Smart Grid: Architecture, Applications, Services, Key Technologies and Challenges," Inventions, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 22, 2019.

[13] M. Faheem et al., "Smart Grid Communication and Information Technologies in the Perspective of Industry 4.0: Opportunities and challenges," Computer Science Review, vol. 30, pp. 1-30, 2018.

[14] S. Eom and J.-H. Huh, "The Opening Capability for Security against Privacy Infringements in the Smart Grid Environment," Mathematics, vol. 6, no. 10, p. 202, 2018.

[15] S. Lee, H. Lim, W. Go, H. Park and T. Shon, "Logical Architecture of HAN-centric Smartgrid Model," Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Platform Technology and Service, 2015, pp. 41-42, Jeju, S. Korea, 2015.

[16] T. Alladi, V. Chamola and S. Zeadally, "Industrial Control Systems: Cyberattack Trends and Countermeasures," Computer Communications, vol. 155, pp.1-8, 2020. 

[17] K. Kimani, V. Oduol and K. Langat, "Cybersecurity Challenges for IoT-based Smart Grid Networks," International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, vol. 25, pp. 36-49, 2019.

[18] A. Ghosal and M. Conti, "Key Management Systems for Smart Grid Advanced Metering Infrastructure: A Survey," IEEE Communications, Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 2831-2848, 2019.

[19] T. Alladi, V. Chamola, J. J. Rodrigues and S. A. Kozlov, "Blockchain in Smart Grids: A Review on Different Use Cases," Sensors, vol. 19, no. 22, p. 4862, 2019.

[20] G. Dileep, "A Survey on Smart Grid Technologies and Applications," Renewable Energy, vol. 146, pp. 2589-2625, 2020.

[21] N. S. Nafi, K. Ahmed, M. A. Gregory and M. Datta, "A Survey of Smart Grid Architectures, Applications, Benefits and Standardization," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 76, pp. 23-36, 2016.

[22] N. Nidhi, D. Prasad and V. Nath, "Different Aspects of Smart Grid: An Overview," Nanoelectronics, Circuits and Communication Systems, Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol. 511, pp. 451-456, Springer, 2019.

[23] K. E. Mwangi, S. Masupe and J. Mandu, "Modelling Malware Propagation on the Internet of Things Using an Agent-based Approach on Complex Networks," Jordanian Journal of Computers and Information Technology (JJCIT), vol. 6, no. 01, pp. 26-40, 2020.

[24] J. E. Sullivan and D. Kamensky, "How Cyber-attacks in Ukraine Show the Vulnerability of the US Power Grid," The Electricity Journal, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 30-35, 2017.

[25] H. B. Salameh, M. Dhainat and E. Benkhelifa, "A Survey on Wireless Sensor Network-based IoT Designs for Gas Leakage Detection and Fire-fighting Applications," Jordanian Journal of Computers and Information Technology (JJCIT), vol. 5, no. 02, pp. 60-72, 2019.

[26] E. Manavalan and K. Jayakrishna, "A Review of Internet of Things (IoT) Embedded Sustainable Supply Chain for Industry 4.0 Requirements," Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 127, pp. 925-953, 2019.

[27] P. A. Pegoraro, A. Meloni, L. Atzori, P. Castello and S. Sulis, "PMU-based Distribution System State Estimation with Adaptive Accuracy Exploiting Local Decision Metrics and IoT Paradigm," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 704-714, 2017.

[28] A. Meloni, P. A. Pegoraro, L. Atzori and S. Sulis, "An IoT Architecture for Wide-area Measurement Systems: A Virtualised PMU-based Approach," Proc. of the IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), pp. 1-6, Leuven, Belgium, 2016.

[29] I. Almomani and K. Sundus, "The Impact of Mobility Models on the Performance of Authentication Services in Wireless Sensor Networks," Jordanian Journal of Computers and Information Technology (JJCIT), vol. 06, no. 1, pp. 75-93, 2020.

[30] N. A. Bakar, W. M. W. Ramli and N. H. Hassan, "The Internet of Things in Healthcare: An Overview, Challenges and Model Plan for Security Risks Management Process," Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (IJEECS), vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 414-420, 2019.

[31] 1. ┼ŻLGNRYá, 0. 0aU\šNa, P. 'RXFHN and L. Nedomova, "Security of Wi-Fi As a Key Factor for IoT," Hradec Economic Days, DOI: 10.36689/uhk/hed/2020-01-101, 2020.

[32] F. I. Salih, N. A. A. Bakar, N. H. Hassan, F. Yahya, N. Kama and J. Shah, "IoT Security Risk Management Model for Healthcare Industry," Malaysian J. of Comp. Science, vol. sp2019, no. 3.9, pp. 131-144, 2019.

[33] R. Mahmoud, T. Yousuf, F. Aloul and I. Zualkernan, "Internet of Things (IoT) Security: Current Status, Challenges and Prospective Measures," Proc. of the 10th IEEE International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), pp. 336-341, London, UK, 2015.

[34] J. Pacheco and S. Hariri, "IoT Security Framework for Smart Cyber Infrastructures," Proc. of the 1st IEEE International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS* W), pp. 242-247, Augsburg, Germany, 2016.

[35] T. Alladi, V. Chamola, B. Sikdar and K.-K. R. Choo, "Consumer IoT: Security Vulnerability Case Studies and Solutions," IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 17-25, 2020.