IMPROVED TESTABILITY METHOD FOR MESH-CONNECTED VLSI MULTIPROCESSORS

(Received: 2018-02-04, Revised: 27-Mar.-2018 and 16-Apr.-2018 , Accepted: 2018-04-25)
Jamil Al-Azzeh,
The problem of in-operation embedded hardware-level fault detection in mesh-connected VLSI multiprocessors is considered. A new approach to the multiprocessor test based on the mutual inter-unit checking is presented, which allows increasing the successful fault detection probability. Formal rules are defined for forming sets of testing and tested neighbors for each unit which are invariant to the location of the unit within the topological structure of the multiprocessor and its dimension. The final test result for each processor unit is formed by applying the majority operator to the individual faulty/healthy tags calculated by all testing neighbors. The formulae to determine the number of testing neighbors for each unit depending on the dimension of the multiprocessor are given. The successful fault detection probability is evaluated in the case when the proposed approach is used; the successful fault detection probability vs. multiprocessor dimension and the successful fault detection probability vs. the individual test unit reliability dependencies are investigated. The proposed approach is shown to provide increased successful fault detection probability compared to the self-test for all practically significant cases.
  1. Jie-qiong Chen and Guo-qiang Mao, "Capacity of Cooperative Vehicular Networks with Infrastructure Support: Multi-user Case," IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 1546-1560, 2018.
  2. X. D. Song and X. Wang, "Extended AODV Routing Method Based on Distributed Minimum Transmission (DMT) for WSN," Int. Jou. of Electronics and Comm., vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 371-381, 2015. 4096 16384 65536 262144 1048576 4194304 16777216 23456789 kmax=16kmax=32 kmax=64kmax=128 kmax=256kmax=512 127 "Improved Testability Method for Mesh-connected VLSI Multiprocessors", Jamil Al-Azzeh.
  3. S. Zhou, J. Chen and S. Liu, "New Mixed Adaptive Detection Algorithm for Moving Target with Big Data, " Journal of Vibroengineering, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 4705-4719, 2016.
  4. H. L. Niu and S. Liu, "Novel Positioning Service Computing Method for WSN, "Wireless Personal Communications Journal, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1747-1769, 2017.
  5. Z. Ma, "A Novel Compressive Sensing Method Based on SVD Sparse Random Measurement Matrix in Wireless Sensor Network, "Engineering Computations, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 2448-2462, 2016.
  6. D. Zhang, S. Zhou and Ya-meng Tang, "A Low Duty Cycle Efficient MAC Protocol Based on Self- adaption and Predictive Strategy, " Mobile Networks & Applications Jour., DOI: 10.1007/s11036-017- 0878-x, 2017.
  7. S. Liu and T. Zhang, "Novel Unequal Clustering Routing Protocol Considering Energy Balancing Based on Network Partition & Distance for Mobile Education, " Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 88, no. 15, pp. 1-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.jnca.2017.03.025, 2017.
  8. K. Zheng and D. Zhao, "Novel Quick Start (QS) Method for Optimization of TCP, "Wireless Networks, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 211-222, 2016.
  9. D. Zhang, X. J. Kang and J. Wang, "A Novel Image De-noising Method Based on Spherical Coordinates System," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, no. 110, pp. 1-10, DOI: 10.1186/1687- 6180-2012-110, 2012.
  10. X. Wang and X. Song, "New Clustering Routing Method Based on PECE for WSN, "EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, no. 162, pp. 1-13, DOI: 10.1186/s13638-015-0399-x, 2015.
  11. X. Song and X. Wang, "New Agent-based Proactive Migration Method and System for Big Data Environment (BDE), " Engineering Computations, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 2443-2466, 2015.
  12. H. L. Niu and S. Liu, "Novel PEECR-based Clustering Routing Approach, "Soft Computing, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 7313-7323, 2017.
  13. Y. Liang, "A Kind of Novel Method of Service-aware Computing for Uncertain Mobile Applications, " Mathematical and Computer Modelling, vol. 57, no. 3-4, pp. 344-356, 2013.
  14. C. P. Zhao, "A New Medium Access Control Protocol Based on Perceived Data Reliability and Spatial Correlation in Wireless Sensor Network," Comp. & Elect. Engineering, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 694-702, 2012.
  15. W. B. Li, "Novel Fusion Computing Method for Bio-Medical Image of WSN Based on Spherical Coordinate, "Journal of Vibroengineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 522-538, 2016.
  16. Z. Ma, "Shadow Detection of Moving Objects Based on Multisource Information in Internet of Things," Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 649-661, 2017.
  17. Z. Ma, "A Novel Compressive Sensing Method Based on SVD Sparse Random Measurement Matrix in Wireless Sensor Network," Engineering Computations, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 2448-2462, 2016.
  18. S. Liu and T. Zhang, "Novel Unequal Clustering Routing Protocol Considering Energy Balancing Based on Network Partition & Distance for Mobile Education, " Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 88, no. 15, pp. 1-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.jnca.2017.03.025, 2017.
  19. G. Li and K. Zheng, "An Energy-balanced Routing Method Based on Forward-aware Factor for Wireless Sensor Network," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 766-773, 2014.
  20. H. L. Niu and S. Liu, "Novel PEECR-based Clustering Routing Approach, "Soft Computing, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 7313-7323, DOI: 10.1007/s00500-016-2270-3, 2017.
  21. H. L. Niu and S. Liu, "Novel Positioning Service Computing Method for WSN," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1747-1769, DOI: 10.1007/s11277-016-3632-y, 2017.
  22. S. Zhou, J. Chen and S. Liu, "New Mixed Adaptive Detection Algorithm for Moving Target with Big Data," Journal of Vibroengineering, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 4705-4719, 2016.
  23. Th. Rauber and G. Runger, Parallel Programming for Multicore and Cluster Systems, Springer 2013, XIII, 516 p.
  24. Z. Wang, VLSI, InTech, 464 p, 2010.
  25. S. Furber, "Living with Failure: Lessons from Nature?," Proc. of the 11th IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS ‘06), pp. 4-8, May 2006. 128 Jordanian Journal of Computers and Information Technology (JJCIT), Vol. 04, No. 02, August 2018.
  26. E. Kolonis, M. Nicolaidis, D. Gizopoulos, M. Psarakis, J. Collet and P. Zajac, "Enhanced Self- configurability and Yield in Multicore Grids," Proc. of the 15th IEEE Int. On-line Testing Symposium (IOLTS), pp. 75-80, Jun. 2009.
  27. G. Jiang, W. Jigang and J. Sun, "Efficient Reconfiguration Algorithm for Three-dimensional VLSI Arrays," Proc. of the 26th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops & PhD Forum, pp. 261-265, 2012.
  28. W. Jigang, T. Srikanthan, G. Jiang and K. Wang, "Constructing Sub-arrays with Short Interconnects from Degradable VLSI Arrays, " IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 929-938, April 2014.
  29. S. M. A. H. Jafri, S. J. Piestrak, O. Sentieys and S. Pillement, "Design of the Coarse-grained Reconfigurable Architecture DART with On-line Error Detection," Microprocessors and Microsystems, vol.38, no. 2, pp. 124-136, 2014.
  30. P. Bernardi, L. M .Ciganda, E. Sanchez and M. Sonza Reorda, "MIHST: A Hardware Technique for Embedded Microprocessor Functional On-line Self-Test," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 2760-2771, Nov. 2014.
  31. S. R. Das, "Self-testing of Core-based Embedded Systems with Built-in Hardware, " IEEE Proceedings: Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 539-546, 7 Oct. 2005.
  32. S. Lin, W. Shen, C. Hsu, C. Chao and A. Wu, "Fault-tolerant Router with Built-in Self-test/Self-diagnosis and Fault-isolation Circuits for 2-D Mesh-Based Chip Multiprocessor Systems," Proc. of the IEEE International Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test (VLSI-DAT '09), pp. 72–75, Apr. 2009.
  33. C. Stroud, J. Sunwoo, S. Garimella and J. Harris, "Built-in Self-test for System-on-Chip: A Case Study," Proc. of the IEEE International Test Conf. (ITC), pp. 837-846, 2004.
  34. Z. Zhang, D. Refauvelet, A. Greiner, M. Benabdenbi and F. Pecheux, "On-the-Field Test and Configuration Infrastructure for 2-D-Mesh NoCs in Shared-Memory Many-Core Architectures, "IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1364-1376, June 2014.
  35. R. Ahlswede and H. Aydinian, "On Diagnosability of Large Multiprocessor Networks," Discrete Applied Mathematics, vol. 156, no. 18, pp. 3464-3474, Nov. 2008.
  36. G. Miorandi, A. Celin, M. Favalli and D. Bertozzi, "A Built-in Self-testing Framework for Asynchronous Bundled-Data NoC Switches Resilient to Delay Variations," Proc. of the 10th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS 2016), pp.1-8, Aug. 31-Sep. 2, 2016.
  37. L. Huang, J. Wang, M. Ebrahimi, M. Daneshtalab, X. Zhang, G. Li and A. Jantsch, "Non-blocking Testing for Network-on-Chip," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 679 - 692, Sep. 2014.
  38. E. Cota, F. Kastensmidt, M. Cassel and M. Herve, "A High-fault Coverage Approach for the Test of Data, Control and Handshake Interconnects in Mesh Networks-on-Chip, "IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1202-1215, 2008.
  39. J. S. Al-Azzeh, M. E. Leonov, D. E. Skopin, E. A. Titenko and I. V. Zotov, "The Organization of Built- in Hardware-Level Mutual Self-test in Mesh-Connected VLSI Multiprocessors, "International Journal on Information Technology, vol.3, no. 2, pp. 29-33, 2015.
  40. J. S. Al-Azzeh, “Fault-tolerant routing in mesh-connected multicomputers based on majority-operator- produced transfer direction identifiers”, Jordan Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol.3, no. 2, pp. 102- 111, 2017.
  41. J. S. Al-Azzeh, “A Distributed Multiplexed Mutual Inter-Unit in-Operation Test Method for Mesh- Connected VLSI Multiprocessors”, Jordan Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol.3, no. 3, pp. 193-207, 2017. 129 "Improved Testability Method for Mesh-connected VLSI Multiprocessors", Jamil Al-Azzeh.